諮詢師與治療師口中的ego(自我),源自西格蒙德•佛洛伊德的定義。佛洛伊德把人格(human personality)分為三部分:

  •  本我(id) – 本我遵循享樂原則,受本能的驅使,追求即刻的滿足。
  •  自我(ego) – 在本我、超我和外在世界之間居中協調,為我們找出合乎社會要求的表現方式。自我乃是心理  中的「表意識」部分,也就是我們所認同的人格或個性。
  • 超我 (superego) – 像一個內在的道德法官,對本我的衝動予以壓制。



         ego 小我 (奇蹟課程)→ 用「假我」較恰當     ←『一體卻不一樣』

耶穌在《課程》中用ego 一詞代表人類整體的心理世界(the entire human psyche),涵括了表意識與潛意識。( conscious and unconscious)他指出,我們認作自己的那個「人」只是一個虛假的自我(false self=假我),始於一個錯誤的信念,以為自己能造出一個替代品,取代我們身為上主愛子的真實身份。

《奇蹟課程》為我們指出,如果我們放下對ego(小我)的執著,擁抱聖靈(Holy Spirit ),我們會活得更快樂。因為有這個說法,許多奇蹟學員遂認為小我是不好的,甚至對「培養健康的ego(自我)」這樣的觀念感到無所適從,畏如蛇蠍。結果恰恰誤解了《課程》的本義,《課程》鼓勵我們活在這個世界,但心知自己不屬於這個世界(to live in this world but know we are not of it.)。要做到這一點需要小我有力量才行。不想培養健康的自我,說明我們感到恐懼,如果我們想超越恐懼,接納上主的聖愛,就得先化解這一恐懼。



選自/ 奇蹟課程基金會問答服務
校譯:王敬偉 Robert


Q #1295: Traditional psychotherapy and A Course in Miracles seem to define the term ego in different ways. I’ve been in counseling for about the past two years and my therapist is working with me to build an ego. She tells me that I’ve got to get an ego first before I can give it up. It would seem that what she defines as ego and what Jesus is talking about are two different things, but I’m not completely sure just how to sort them out.

A: Counselors and therapists use the term ego thanks to Sigmund Freud. Freud divided the human personality into three parts: id, ego, and superego. According to his theory, the id operates on the pleasure principle, seeking immediate gratification for our instinctual drives. The superego is our internal, moral censor that represses the id. And the ego mediates between the id, superego, and the outside world, seeking to find means for us to express ourselves in socially acceptable ways. The ego is the conscious part of the psyche — basically the personality with which we identify.

Today’s counselors who speak of the ego do not necessarily view the psyche from a Freudian perspective. But they have largely adopted the word egoas a shortcut for saying our personality and identity as an individual . The goal of most counselors is to assist others in becoming healthier individuals — helping them to be more comfortable and functional within this world. So, we could say that they are helping their clients or patients to develop healthy egos.

When Jesus speaks of the ego in the Course, he is basically talking about the entire human psyche, conscious and unconscious. He tells us that the person we think we are is a false self, born of our mistaken belief that we could create a substitute for our true identity as God’s beloved Son. Thus, A Course in Miracles is all about recognizing that we would be happier if we released our grip on the ego and embraced the Holy Spirit instead. Therefore, for many Course students, the term ego has taken on a sinister ring — making the idea of developing a healthy one sound contradictory, if not downright frightening. However, this is the result of a misunderstanding. The Course encourages us to live in this world but know we are not of it. And doing that requires ego strength. To not develop a healthy ego represents fear, which must be unlearned if we are ever to move beyond fear to acceptance of God’s Love.
So, far from turning the ego into an enemy, Jesus would have us forgive it (and thus forgive ourselves) as the first step to moving beyond it. While he would ultimately have us let the ego go; Jesus would be the first to agree that we cannot move beyond the ego until we see it for what it is and make peace with it. Thus, like a great therapist, he asks us to simply watch it — turning our experience of being an ego (which, within this dream, seems to be the entirety of who we are) into a classroom in which we learn more and more about ourselves every day.
The Course and most forms of counseling do part ways in that, in counseling, becoming at peace with yourself within this world is typically the final goal, while in the Course, it is only a step toward awakening. Yet, despite both this fundamental difference and differences in the use of language, there is certainly no inherent conflict between the Course and the process of therapy. It is simply important for Course students to hold the aim of therapy as a means to an end and not an end itself.


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